Types of Standards
What is the difference between data, information and knowledge?
- Data is raw material, for example numbers, text, images and sounds, in a form suitable for storage in or processing by a computer. It is without context or specific meaning.
- Information is the result of processing, manipulating and organising data. It is the context in which data is taken.
- Knowledge is the right information delivered to the right person just in time, in order to take the most appropriate decision.
- Wisdom is the knowledge and experience needed to make sensible decisions and judgements, or the good sense shown by the decisions and judgements made.
Standards can be divided into the following types, building from data to knowledge and wisdom:
- Technical standards - e.g. those covering document formats or networking.
- Data standards - defining the structure and type of data.
- Information standards - a specification defining not just the structure of the data but how it should be used.
- Professional standards - specifying how professionals should manage information in the patient record.
The diagram below shows how the different types of standards can produce an end to end informatics solution.